Agreement Of Kars

The Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighbourly Relations, signed in 1992 between Georgia and Turkey, defines the borders between Georgia and Turkey in the current context. Kobakhidze mentions that the application of the Treaty of Kars to the present is not desirable, as the 1920s were a different time, so the treaty had different meanings then and now. The given treaty attributes Adjaraan to Georgia and does not raise any questions. However, the issue of the distribution of territories was resolved by two large States — Russia and Turkey — without taking into account the positions of Georgia and the local population. Kobakhidze added that the 1992 treaty reflected the mutual understanding between Georgia and Turkey today on the border issue. The document given confirms that Turkey considers the territory of Adjara to be part of Georgia. The Treaty is as follows: 3. The current Turkish-Georgian border, including that defined in the Treaty of Kars, was reaffirmed by Turkey in the 1992 agreement. The contract, the original text of which is available online, contains no provisions that would create a legal basis for its expiry in 2021.

In addition, the Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Good-Neighbourly Relations between the Republic of Georgia and the Republic of Turkey, signed on 25 March 1993, provides that the parties `shall respect the treaties and arrangements which they have signed, including the Treaty of Kars of 13 October 1921`. The Parties to this Agreement undertake not to recognize a peace treaty or any other international covenant that one of these Parties may have been compelled to sign by force. The territory of today`s Adjara, including Batumi, has become an object of interests and negotiations for the imperialist states and has been given/removed several times. For example, the Ottoman Empire/Turkey, in accordance with the Treaty of Berlin of 1878, the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920, and the Treaty of Moscow of 1922, refused to claim the District of Batumi, and the Soviet Union ceded the District of Batumi to the Ottoman Empire in 1918. According to historian Beka Kobakhidze, the district of Batumi was occupied by the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century. The Treaty of Georgievsk, signed in 1783 by Georgia and Russia, provided for Russian assistance to Georgia for the restitution of these territories. Russia reconquered these territories by the Treaty of Berlin of 1878, signed after its victory in the Russo-Turkish War. After 40 years, after the Bolshevik Revolution and its exit from World War I, Soviet Russia ceded the Batumi district to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 1918. The government of the Transcaucase Federation, created to counterbalance the Russian Bolshevik government and comprising Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, fought Bolshevik Russia to protect Batumi, but was defeated. Under an agreement signed on June 4, 1918 between Georgia and the Ottoman Empire, Batumi was handed over to Turkey to stop Ottoman aggression. However, the Georgian Parliament has never ratified this agreement. .

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